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'Best in Show', RHS Tatton Park Show July 2016; Hertford cherries

‘Best in Show’: Hertford cherries at RHS Tatton Park Show July 2016

For the first time, cherries captured the ‘Best in Show’ prize for Adrian Baggaley; he also took many other prizes at the recent Royal Horticultural Society Tatton Park Show and gained a total of 16 firsts. Congratulation Adrian!

That exhibitors managed to stage cherries at all is remarkable in a year that has been difficult for English market growers, who are experiencing a poor harvest, at least in Kent. Rain and low temperatures, with one very cold night, at blossom time gave a poor fruit set and hence a low yield.

The prize winning, large and perfectly matching Hertford cherries were grown in Nottinghamshire, not a county where market cherries are grown and where Adrian says a north easterly wind has been blowing since February. Only recently has there been some respite from its chilly effects. He grows his Hertford cherries under permanent protection in a huge ‘box’ with a polythene cover across the top and fine mesh on the sides to keep off rain and birds. This covering at blossom time, he believes, ensured his good crop of cherries. Commercial fruit growers producing cherries in covered tunnels tend to put on the covers after blossom time. In their set-up, if these are erected before the flowers appear, a sunny day can send the temperatures soaring and there is the danger that it can get too high for effective pollination.

Fruit Forum

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Merryweather Damson

Merryweather Damson

As we have done for a number of years, we publish the blossom records for the National Fruit Collection at Brogdale, undertaken and kindly supplied by Lorinda Jewsbury. These are records for a selection of varieties (standards and any new accessions) from all the tree fruit collections at Brogdale.

The flowering season is once more under way in the orchards at Brogdale. Many of the plums have reached full flower and the remaining varieties should not be too far behind. The warm, sunny weather a week or so back saw a good number of pears opening their blossom and some of the cherries began to follow. However, the weekend was a different story weather-wise and the chilly weather that came in has certainly put the brakes on the flowering for now. As for the effect of the chill on the open flowers and fertilisation process, we shall just have to wait and see.

Lorinda Jewsbury

 

2016

PLUM

Cambridge Gage:

Czar: 5th April (10% open); 10th April (full flower)

Denniston’s Superb (Imperial Gage): 7th April (10% open); 10th April (full flower); 20th April (90% petal fall)

Farleigh Damson: 11th April (10% open); 13th April (full flower)

Marjorie’s Seedling: 18th April (10% open); 21st April (full flower)

Oullins Gage: 11th April (10% open); 12th April (full flower)

Pershore Yellow Egg: 6th April (10% open); 8th April (full flower); 25th April (90% petal fall)

Victoria: 10th April (10% open); 14th April (full flower)

 

PEAR

Concorde:

Conference:

Doyenne du Comice:

Louise Bonne of Jersey: 12th April (10% open); 15th April (full flower)

 

CHERRY

Early Rivers: 23rd April (10% open)

Hertford:

Lapins: 20th April (10% open); 23rd April (full flower)

Merchant:

Stella:

Sunburst:

 

APPLE

Blenheim Orange:

Bramley’s Seedling:

Cox’s Orange Pippin:

Crawley Beauty:

Discovery:

Egremont Russet:

Falstaff:

Feuillemorte:

Fiesta/Red Pippin:

Gala:

James Grieve:

Jonagold:

Meridian:

Red Astrachan:

St. Edmund’s Pippin:

Worcester Pearmain:

 

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Prunus mume Benichidori

Prunus mume ‘Benichidori’

This year Prunus mume ‘Benchidori’ is in full flower now, at the beginning of January in Kent. There were even sprigs in flower for me to bring inside for a Christmas Day posy! This is extraordinary early: in 2011, for example,  it came into blossom in about mid-March.  Prunus mume is a small tree, rather tender in the UK as it flowers so early and planted as an ornamental rather than fruiting tree. Its flowers are exquisite and in this variety deep pink and intensely scented. That it has flowered so early is proof indeed that we have had an exceptionally mild winter. If any proof was needed with primroses and winter Cyclamen coum in flower. Do any of our readers have Prunus mume in flower, or other examples of such early growth?

Hundreds of cultivated varieties of Prunus mume exist in its homeland in the Far East. It is the ‘plum’ blossom of Chinese paintings and cultivated in China and Japan for centuries, where it serves as the harbinger of spring often flowering when snow is still on the ground. Prunus mume is grown for its fruit, as well as blossom, and these are an important ingredient in Chinese and Japanese cuisine – made into a sauce, an alcoholic drink and pickled, as ‘umeboshi plums’ in Japan. For a little more about ‘Prunus mume – the first fruit blossom of the year’, see this past post.

Can anyone give us more information on Prunus mume and how it is grown in China and Japan or anywhere else that it may be cultivated?

Joan Morgan

 

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I thought these pages might be useful for your fruit-loving readers!

Strawberry Festival Calendar 2016-2017: https://www.everfest.com/food/strawberry-festivals

Hundreds of Fruit Festivals happening in 2016-2017: https://www.everfest.com/find?utf8=%E2%9C%93&location=&latitude=&longitude=&starts_on=&ends_on=&q=fruit&button=

Maddie Rish

 

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Walnut trees cropping heavily in Kent; inset Broadview walnuts

Walnut trees cropping heavily in Kent this year; inset English grown Broadview walnuts.

This year has been an excellent one for walnuts with a splendid harvest of English grown walnuts.

You can find English walnuts on sale in farm shops, farmer’s markets and food festivals across south east England, as well as on-line.

Home grown walnuts are so much tastier than imported ones. They are fresher: harvested this autumn, travelling at most 50 miles from farm to market and very well worth seeking out. Walnuts are not usually sold by the variety, but the grower will be able to tell you which one you are buying. The two I found on sale last weekend were Broadview and Lara, gathered from trees planted during the 1990s and now in their stride, cropping well.

This is the time of year to look out for home grown walnuts. The two main sellers are Alexander Hunt of Potash Farm, near Sevenoaks and Edward Lade of Nut Farms, also based in Kent. Potash Farm has its own shop, on-line sales and regional outlets and can to be found at farmers’ markets across the south east: see here for a diary of venues. Nut Farms sells walnuts at Kent markets and every weekend in London at the Saturday ‘Fine Food Market’, Duke of York’s Square, off the King’s Road, Chelsea and the Sunday ‘Farmers Market’ at Alexandra Palace, Muswell Hill; see here for more information. They both also sell home grown hazel nuts and a range of products, which includes hazel nut oil and walnut oil.

Check on their websites and twitter for the markets at which you can find them and check the list of Kent Farmers Markets to be held during December in the run-up to Christmas.

English nuts will be featured on BBC Radio 4 ‘Farming Today’ next Wednesday 16 December at 5.45 am, also on Saturday 19 December at 6.30am and include an interview with Alexander Hunt.

For more walnut stories see our main website for reviews of two books, one on cooking with walnuts and the other about walnuts grown across the world: http://www.fruitforum.net/walnuts-at-home-and-abroad.htm

Fruit Forum

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Tradescants' Orchard by Juniper and Grootenboer (2013)

The Tradescants’ Orchard by Juniper and Grootenboer (2013)

‘Tradescants’ Orchard’ is the name given to a leather bound volume of over 60 water-colours of varieties of different fruits painted in the 17th century and held in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. These pictures, which are often seen reproduced on postcards, notelets and so on published by the Bodleian, were the subject of a book in 2013 by Dr. Barrie Juniper and Dr. Hanneke Grootenboer: Tradescants’ Orchard, the Mystery of a Seventeenth–Century Fruit Book (reviewed on our main website ). The authors explored many avenues of investigation in pursuit of the origin and purpose of the paintings, but the most intriguing question remained – who was responsible for painting the fruit pictures? Now, Dr. Juliet Ralph of the Bodleian and Dr. Juniper believe they have solved the mystery and their findings were published in a recent issue of Oxford Today (Vol 27, No 2, 2015).

First, let us go over a little of the background to this volume of paintings and the details published in Juniper and Grootenboer’s book: in about 1680 the water-colours were brought together and bound or rebound with a contents page written and inserted by Elias Ashmole, a scholar and wealthy collector. He owned the paintings in 1678. Earlier he had described them as ‘A Book of Fruit Trees with their Fruits, drawn in Colours about the year 1640. Fol. 1461’. Ashmole donated the bound volume of paintings to the University of Oxford and it was placed in the Ashmolean Museum, passing to the Bodleian Library in 1860, when it received the name ‘Tradescants’ Orchard’.

The watercolours may have belonged to the Tradescant family, but their origins are far from clear. John Tradescant and his son, also John, were gardeners to the aristocracy and plant collectors, who established a nursery at Lambeth in South London. They also built up a ‘Cabinet of Curiosities’, a collection of natural history objects, coins and other items, which Ashmole acquired and gave to Oxford University; in many ways it founded the Museum that bears Ashmole’s name.

In the Oxford Today article, Ralph and Juniper suggest that the artist responsible for the water-colours was Hester Pooks or Pookes, who became the second wife of John Tradescant junior in 1638. The evidence is circumstantial, though nonetheless persuasive. Hester was part Dutch by birth, related to distinguished Dutch artists, the De Critz and De Neve families; a member of the former was a royal portrait painter. Indeed, Hester’s Dutch relations made several portraits of the Tradescant family, although only after her arrival.

The arguments in favour of Hester as the artist are that she was brought up in a world of painters, could have watched them at work, even received some lessons. When she moved to London, she was in a position to persuade her relatives to bring across the good quality paper that was used, as well as brushes and paints. The water-colours that she may have painted, however, were naïve, simple drawings and child-like in their execution compared with the work of contemporaries abroad and of artists in England.

Hester’s water-colours, if she was the artist, include pictures of birds, butterflies and animals. This combination of fruit with its leaves and insects and other creatures often featured in still-life paintings and she may have painted them for her own pleasure or to decorate her home. But the paintings show signs of a good deal of handling, which led Juniper and Grootenboer to propose that they functioned as an illustrated catalogue, which the Tradescants showed to customers to tempt them to buy fruit trees. Yet, as the authors point out,  if this was their purpose the present collection of water colours must surely be incomplete, since it has very few paintings of the most popular tree fruits of the time – only one variety of apple and merely four of the pear. Furthermore, these paintings were made some time before, as far as I am aware, the first known example of an illustrated fruit list – the famous Furber’s Fruits published in 1732 by this Kensington Nurseryman to promote his stocks.

The nature and style of the paintings, Ralph and Juniper find, resembles another form of domestic art, that of embroidery and, particularly, the uniquely English ‘stump-work’ or embossed, raised work made by padding out the images. At this time, needlework was an appropriate occupation for girls and women in the home, who might create embroidered pictures, frames for mirrors and covers for boxes. To inspire and guide the embroiderer, pattern books were published and needlework kits sold. Flowers, fruits, leaves, tiny insects and animals, depicted with a simple almost folk-art quality, are among the motifs found in needlework of this period.

Perhaps, these fruit water-colours were designs and templates for Hester’s embroidery. She may have copied the outlines of the design and transferred these to her material, often satin in stumpwork, and then used the colours of the painting to select the right silks to create her embroidered composition. One can image a plump peach or a luscious bunch of grapes with a curious little lizard alongside lending itself to an embossed needlework picture. Hester could have shared or lent her paintings to other ladies to copy. This might account for the marks of handling seen on the original paintings.  All we need now is some matching embroidery! Was there anything resembling an embroidered picture or trinket box among the objects that Ashmole gave to the Museum?

Joan Morgan

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Book of Pears 9781785031472

 

A long time in the making, The Book of Pears is now published. It tells the story of the pear in eight narrative chapters and contains a Directory to around 500 varieties of pear. Following the pear’s journey across continents and cultures, the chapters trace its history, the gradual emergence of its luscious textures, exotic perfumes and increasing status to that of a highly prized fresh fruit. ‘Gold to the apple’s silver, it used to be said. The pear’s role as a market fruit and international commodity forms part of the story and also the use of other pear varieties for cooking and making into the drink perry. Water colour paintings of pears by Elisabeth Dowle illustrate the chapters, plus many period images. In the Directory, which forms the second half of the book, each variety entry contains tasting notes, an account of its origin and history, a full fruit description for the purposes of identification and details helpful to its cultivation. The Directory is based on the Pear Collection in National Fruit Collection at Brogdale in Kent, UK.

The Book of Pears has a companion website, which is now also launched: http://www.thebookofpears.fruitforum.net

The website complements the book and Elisabeth’s paintings by providing photographs of almost every one of the varieties described in its Directory; impossible to include in the book itself. Together with the book, this gallery of photographs can be used to put a picture to a name and help put a name to an unknown pear. All the varieties shown on the website were photographed and grow in the National Fruit Collection (except where noted).

I hope that the book and the website will prove enjoyable and useful and that they will work well together.

Joan Morgan

The Book of Pears is published as a hard back and ebook by Ebury Press in association with the Royal Horticultural Society in the UK and by Chelsea Green in the USA. Available from bookshops, the publishers (Ebury, RHS, Chelsea Green) and Amazon.

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